A paradox of attempting to apply ideas from research into the real world is that the simplified environments of scientific experiments allow for the formation of extremely complex explanations, whilst the application of those ideas into the more complicated real world often require that they are somewhat simplified. The ideal conditions required for creating validity, and those required for creating transportability (the easy transmission of an idea into the real world, to borrow a phrase from Jack Schneider’s 2014 book ‘From the ivory tower to the school house’), are almost completely opposing. This clearly creates a dilemma: how much erosion of validity do we accept in order to allow a theory to become transportable?
‘The Chimp Paradox’… Paradox
Until recently I was something of a validity purist on this matter. I remember a seminar I attended last year with Vincent Walsh, a neuroscientist at UCL who studies sporting performance and decision-making under pressure and works with various GB sports teams. At one point, mention was made of Steve Peters, the psychiatrist who has also made a name working with some of the biggest names in UK sport such as Chris Hoy, Victoria Pendleton, Steven Gerrard and Ronnie O’Sullivan, as well as a lucrative consultancy side-arm with hundreds of companies. Peters’ work, detailed in his book ‘The Chimp Paradox’ involves dividing the mind into two competing parts; a primitive “Chimp” brain (the limbic area), which deals with emotions, and a more rational “Human” brain (the frontal cortex). In Peters’ formulation the chimp brain works 5 times faster than the human brain. In some of his work with sportspeople a third region is introduced: the “Computer” brain, which is even faster (20 times as fast as the human and 4 times faster than the chimp!)
Peters’ clients are taught to recognise their mental states and to govern nerves, pressures and insecurities according to these three brain labels. Now, from a purely neuroscientific perspective, Peters’ ideas are at best a severe oversimplification, and at worst outright inaccurate. I won’t spend time here covering the reasons for this (though this page is a decent introduction to the difficulties of dividing the brain into regions according to their ‘development’). However (and this was the point made to me when I voiced these concerns), when you have Chris Hoy crediting Peters with his gold medals, you can’t really argue with his results. Sometimes an idea can be a ‘useful simplification’ (or even a ‘useful fiction’, depending on how stringent your criteria are), containing enough accurate information to help people whilst remaining widely transportable. The success of ‘The Chimp Paradox’, then, is precisely because the complicated science behind Peters’ claims have been simplified enough to have broad accessibility and appeal to people’s everyday lives – ‘The Chimp Paradox’ Paradox, if you will.
Validity vs transportability in teaching
The difficulty is that there are no clear indicators as to where to draw the line between validity and transportability. Indeed, the ‘Goldilocks zone’ may be different for each idea anyway, depending, for example, on the transportability of the original idea and the extent to which it can be simplified whilst still retaining a coherent message. The downside of this process is that more complex theories (which may well resist simplification for very good reasons) will lack transportability, limiting the extent to which they are able to be widely adopted. As an example from another Twitter feed last week:
Whilst the post was widely appreciated in certain circles, I was struck by how Cognitive Load Theory, an idea that is so central to much educational scholarship (and which is potentially an extremely helpful concept for educators) has, in my experience at least, never really caught on in classrooms. I would argue that this might be because its rather nuanced division of cognitive load into three different types is not the sort of thing that is easily transported in 140 characters or casual break-time conversation. The validity/transportability balance for CLT is an interesting story in itself; this essay from Michael Pershan charts Sweller’s attempts to balance the complexity and validity of his theory with its transportability. It is hard to see how CLT could be further simplified without losing its essential essence, but equally in its current form I’m not convinced it’s that transportable.
Teach Like a Chimp
So what are the ‘useful simplifications’ in teaching? Which academic ideas can be easily simplified into transportable forms without losing their validity? I might suggest the following:
What other ideas would people suggest?